84.GOAD’S OWN COUNTRY 12. THE CHINESE FISHING NETS AND THE FISH DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS OF KERALA.

The above two topics are not related although both of them deal with fish. They are clubbed together for the sake of convenience.

The Chinese Fishing Nets are unique to Kerala and are not found in any other seaboard state of India. Even in Kerala they are confined to Ernakulam-Alleppey-Kollam belt. There are two theories about how they landed here. One is that they were introduced by the Chinese fleet of Zeng He who visited Kerala in early 14th century. The other theory which is more plausible is that they were brought in by the ‘Casado’ Portuguese settlers who came from Macao. If this later theory is correct, the nets have a comparatively more recent history. In any case, they are a part of the south Malabar landscape for at least 300 years.

They are called CHEENA VALA, localy.

1

2

Why did they become popular as against the traditional fishing methods? The nets take less effort to operate compared to the more traditional method of hauling the net through the sand on the shore. It also requires lesser number of people to operate. On the flip side, it is not a very efficient method of fishing. The yield is quite low. The operation of these nets requires tidal waters. They catch fish only at the high tide when the seawater enters the creeks and the ’backwaters’. That explains their geography. You cannot operate them in the open seashores where most of the commercial fishing takes place.

We first encountered the nets at Vypin island. I guess they are found another fifty kilometres or so up north  in the Kodangallur area.

It is perhaps on the Vypin island in Erankulam district that they are economically important even now.

The fishing nets are a sort of factory. It needs a platform, staff, storage space etc. depending on the level of activity.

It is generally thought that these objects are made of wood. Not true. Although considerable amount of wood is used the main cross members of the beam are made of steel and bear most of the stress. In mechanical terms the nests are easy to lower into the sea and raise above after the catch with minimum efforts made possible by use of levers. They don’t require any other electro-mechanical inputs. Maintenance of the components appears to be the major source of expenditure in the operation.

Skilled workers are required to lower and raise the nets.

In terms of the fish caught, they appear to be insignificant in the overall fisheries scene of the state. Insignificant in terms of quantity of fish caught and its value. The major fishing method is of course the motorized trawling.

Apart from the estuarine  areas around Cochin, the southern backwaters also have the presence of these fishing nets. On  the Ashatmudi lake, they seem to be operated at night and use electrical lights to attract the fish. You can see the lamp on the top of this net.

dsc_4580

Whether economically important or not the nets add a lot of beauty to scene. No visitor to Kochi will return without the photographs of the nets.

At many places I think the nets are used as a piece of decoration, as here at Kumarkonam.

kumarkonam

At  Kochi a particular section of the town is called Fishing Nets area. I need to caution people about an activity caried out here.

A few people sell a lot of fish and crabs here. The selling point is that the fish is fresh off the Chinese Nets and you can have it coked instantly by the service provider on the pavement. They never say in so many words that the fish is off the nets. It is implied and we take it for granted, most of us. We establish a connection between the two.

This story has two parts, the source of the fish and the availability of cooking facility instantly. The first one patently untrue and the second part is absolutley true.

dsc_4076

Look at the wide variety of fish sold which includes Pomphrets.

Many of these are deep-sea fishes and cannot be caught here in the creek.

This is all about the Chinese Fishing Nets that I could observe.

Whilst at it, allow me to share a couple of other traditional fishing methods of Kerala.

The pictures below show a large net being used on the seashore at the receding tide. This method needs huge manpower and is a collective efforts by the fishermen community. The pictures below were taken at Kovalam in southern Kerala. This is not unique to Kerala. It is practiced in Maharashtra, Goa and presumably in Karnataka although I have not seen it. This provides the freshest possible commercial catch and is sold at a premium.

We have covered this in an earlier post in this blog. It is called Rampon or Rampan in Maharashtra and Goa. I need to find out what they call it in Malayalam.

There is another fishing expedition we could observe at Varkala in southern Kerala. Very interesting and Varkala being a cliff, we could observe it clearly but not at a close range.

Two boats venture into the sea. One is large, the other small. the larger one is carrying the net.

1

They spread the net in a circle.

A third boat provides some assistance or perhaps some supervision.

5

They are now closing in, bringing the entire net to the larger boat. In a short while the net is dragged on to the boat.

The whole operation took about 90 to 100 minutes. The boats return to the shore with the catch.

8

PART II- Distribution.

OK, the fish has been caught and it has to reach the plates of the customers. Let us see how they do it.

Practically everyone in Goad’s own Country eats fish. To feed this vast population with fresh fish is a challenge that has spawned various ingenious delivery methods.

The traditional roadside shop exists as it does everywhere else. They could be small makeshift kiosks or more elaborate structures which allow storage of unsold stocks.

dsc_2851

They also exist at the wholesale market places like the one below.

dsc_2879

Fish is sold at many places with the sellers seating on the ground with a basket or two arranged in front. This is particularly true when women are selling.

dsc_5125

More commonly it is a raised platform where the sale is completed standing up.

dsc_4448

Carts with bicycle wheels are also used in smaller places.

dsc_3491

In Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka selling of fish is women’s monopoly. In Kerala I guess the men do not trust the women with the money. I did not see many woman selling fish.

In most cases the sale is by weight but in many cases the age-old method of selling on the basis of a ‘portion’ prevails.

dsc_5152

The ‘portion’ system’ works well for odd items like the squid above or the Blue crabs below.

901

At times  the larger items are sold on ‘piece’ basis , like these  rays below.

902

This ‘numbers’ method is also useful for certain kind of shellfish like mussels. You can buy a 50 or a 100 of the delicacies below.

dsc_2852

Do they sell cleaned (dressed) or as it is found in the sea? The popular method in Kerala appears to be as it comes from the sea. The person cooking appears to be the deciding  on the method of cleaning.

Delivery on bicycles is still going on but looks like a dying institution but still exists all the same. The pictures below are in the heart of Kochi town. .

The motorbikes are a more viable proposition and they have been adapted very well for this activity. Look at this bike.

dsc_4450

It has the provision to fix the box with the fish and the ice. The melting ice water has to be drained. Provided for. The smelly water is drained on the road to burn the nostrils of the vegetarians passing by.

dsc_4451

dsc_4452

You will find this scene in many small towns and villages in Kerala.

dsc_4463

Frozen Fish does not appear to find favour with the Malayalis with most of the folks looking for fresh fish but use of ice appear to have gained acceptance. My friend Ibrahim at Ponnani does not use ice at all.

dsc_3133

On the Ashtamudi lake and other ‘Backwater’ areas fish is sold door to (wet)door by the small boats or canoes.

For movement of medium quantities, autorikshaws particularly the larger ones (6 seaters) are used, as are the ‘tempos’, the small trucks.

dsc_4319

Use of saloon cars is not prohibited.

There is an interesting phenomena we could witness not very far from Trivandrum. We entered a large fishing harbour called Muthalapozhi. It was empty but for a couple of stray latecomer. The fishing auctions were completed very early in the morning and the fish had gone to the smaller markets. Here we see a boat with fish. This is not a fishing boat. It is a ‘transport’. It brings the fish from the Trawlers when it is fresh and sells it here.

A  Trawler is at sea typically for 2 to 3 weeks and use ice for storing the catch. The quality of the fish after the three weeks is not the same as fresh fish. Many people do not buy fish from these trawlers. As a via media, these enterprising people buy fish from the trawlers, presumably mid sea and bring it to the shore-fresh.

The above information is from a buyer I met on the jetty and was willing to pay a higher price to this fish as compared to the one sold in the market.

If you really enjoy yourselves at a ‘market’, I recommend you a visit to a fish auction on the seashore when the small boats bring the catch ashore. And what better place for it than Kerala?

dsc_5150

Small lots are laid down on the beach one by one in quick succession and the bidding takes a minute or so for each lot.

Believe me, women are at their ferocious  best when they are bidding against each other.

Text and Pictures : Suryakiran Naik

suryakiran.naik@gmail.com

 

 

80. GOD’S OWN COUNTRY – 8. Ernakulam. Kochi.

It would have been easier for everyone if the district would have been called Kochin instead of Ernakulam. But, no. Goad’s Own Country does not follow the ordinary rules. For everything there is a reason and there is a history.

I started the previous paragraph to write about Cochin. If I had written it as Kochi in my school days, Mr. Pillai our geography teacher would have thrashed me for wrongly spelling his hometown. That was in 1970s. Cochin became Kochi in 1996.

Kochi is often called the Queen of Arabian Sea. It came into prominence from 1341 AD onwards when the then major port north of Kochin called Muziris was destroyed in a major flooding.  Remember this place ? this is where St Thomas landed from the Middle East with the message from the new Messanger of God? Here we are talking of 14th century when the sea route to India via Cape was not discovered. However, the city was known to the Romans, Greeks, Jews, Chinese and Arabs of course. The first three were using a combination of land and sea routes. The guy called Vasco da Gama who used the exclusively sea route around the   came much later.

We (No, Vasco is not with us these days) start early morning from Ernakulam and start exploring the district from the northern side. The first stop is Santa Cruz Cathedral. Majestic structure with an imposing view as you approach it.

dsc_3759

Santa Cruz cathedral

 

 

Idols are aplenty around. Beautiful.

Vypin island and Cherai beach follows.

A lot of history must be hidden in the islands of Ernakulam district. A lot.

dsc_3783

This is the place from where you start seeing the Chinese Fishing Nets. Why from here? I dont know but I will write a bit about these nets a little later.

Vypin Island has a small beach and a nice little Church.

dsc_3794

But the place is dominated by the CFNs, I mean Chinese Fishing Nets. The CFNs that you see in the picture postcards are located on the Vypin island but the shot from the opposite side , Cochi town. Let me add a picture here from Vypin proper.

dsc_3784

Chinese Fishing Nets

Pallipuram Fort is the northernmost place in Ernakulam. To the north is another part of history – Kodangallore-Muziris Axis.

This place was built by the Portuguese in 1503 and is now considered as the oldest surviving European built structure in India. Congratulations, Pallipuram. it was owned by the Portuguese, the Dutch, the English and the local Kings at various times in history. It was taken over by the Indian government not from the British but from the Travancore kings.

It is not easy to visit this place. That explains why it is not on the Tourists Menu. It takes the grit of TheBlueDrive to find such places and actually visit them, not post the borrowed pictures.

It was risky to park the car on the extremely busy and very narrow road. There is no option.

It is to the credit of Kerala Dept. of Archaeology that the fort is still in good shape.

dsc_3810

dsc_3817

The creek is very close to the fort. As usual there is no information available at site but the lady who was cleaning the place showed us what appears like an underground passage that perhaps led to the creek waters in the past.

dsc_3819

dsc_3816

Our next stop is the Vypin Lighthouse. If you are allowed to visit only one place in Kerala before you are executed, opt for the Top of Vypin Lighthouse.

Here is why:

dsc_3825

dsc_3826

dsc_3830

Water is everywhere , so are the Goads.

The lighthouse itself is infested with young people with their Android phones taking ‘selfies’ with their friends .The reason for the popularity of the lighthouse ? it is among a very few in India which has a lift. TheBlueDrive with average age of 60 climb most of them with or without lift ( for the benefit of the Americans, Lift means Elevators). Anyway, from the outside the Lighthouse looks like this.

Cochi has so much history that there is very little place for anything else. The Mattancherry Palace. ( Cameras not allowed inside, so very little can be shared).

The Cochin Fort abutting the beach.

You walk along the beach and find a place called ‘Gunnery’. Logically it should have been a part of the Fort and inside the ramparts.

And then a few meters away something the Dutch are famous for in India- Cementaries.The Dutch cementaries are the best European resting places in India. I can say this the benefit of having seen most of them.

 How can I ignore the 511 years old Santa Cruz Basilica?

Heart of Jesus Church.

dsc_3869

On the Mattanchery side is the Jew Town which is a bazar but still has the old buidings including the Synagogue. They no longer allow you photograph inside the Synagogue but  I still have the ‘negatives’ of the film of the previous visit when we used to use ‘film’ for photographing. I need to go back into my archives and find them.

dsc_3937

The Synagogue

 

The fear of the dead is inversely proportional to the time elapsed from the date of death. The recently demised invoke more fear than those who died in the distant past. The people of Kochi are closing in on the Jewish graves. They are not likely to be here for long.

Kochi has at least three Museums. The Mattanchery Palace Museum and the Indo-Poruguese Museum do not allow photography. The third museum is the Maritime History Museum of Indian Navy. If you want to uderstand the Maritime history and the major players on the western seaboard of India, a visit is to this museum is a must.

Apart from the major players the museum allows us a peek into the types of boats and vessels used in ancient times.

Apart from this the exhibits trace the history of Indian Navy and also the European fortifications on India’s coast.

Thed details are beyond the scope of this blog. Suffice it to say that a visit is recommened.

There are many other aspects of Ernakulam/Cochin life which need to be writen about. To limit the size of the post I will be merging them with other places as we go along as many of the aspects overlap. The Chinese Fishing Nets and the Fish Sellers of Kerala are aming them.

Please allow me conclude this post here.

Text and Pictures by Suryakiran Naik